Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)-based observation systems can provide high precision positioning and navigation solutions in real time, in the order of subcentimetre if we make use of carrier phase measurements in the differential mode and deal with all the bias and noise terms well. However, these carrier phase measurements are ambiguous due to unknown, integer numbers of cycles. One key challenge in the differential carrier phase mode is to fix the integer ambiguities correctly. On the other hand, in the safety of life or liability-critical applications, such as for vehicle safety positioning and aviation, not only is high accuracy required, but also the reliability requirement is important. This PhD research studies to achieve high reliability for ambiguity resolution (AR) in a multi-GNSS environment.
GNSS ambiguity estimation and validation problems are the focus of the research effort. Particularly, we study the case of multiple constellations that include initial to full operations of foreseeable Galileo, GLONASS and Compass and QZSS navigation systems from next few years to the end of the decade. Since real observation data is only available from GPS and GLONASS systems, the simulation method named Virtual Galileo Constellation (VGC) is applied to generate observational data from another constellation in the data analysis. In addition, both full ambiguity resolution (FAR) and partial ambiguity resolution (PAR) algorithms are used in processing single and dual constellation data.
Firstly, a brief overview of related work on AR methods and reliability theory is given. Next, a modified inverse integer Cholesky decorrelation method and its performance on AR are presented. Subsequently, a new measure of decorrelation performance called orthogonality defect is introduced and compared with other measures. Furthermore, a new AR scheme considering the ambiguity validation requirement in the control of the search space size is proposed to improve the search efficiency. With respect to the reliability of AR, we also discuss the computation of the ambiguity success rate (ASR) and confirm that the success rate computed with the integer bootstrapping method is quite a sharp approximation to the actual integer least-squares (ILS) method success rate. The advantages of multi-GNSS constellations are examined in terms of the PAR technique involving the predefined ASR. Finally, a novel satellite selection algorithm for reliable ambiguity resolution called SARA is developed.
In summary, the study demonstrats that when the ASR is close to one, the reliability of AR can be guaranteed and the ambiguity validation is effective. The work then focuses on new strategies to improve the ASR, including a partial ambiguity resolution procedure with a predefined success rate and a novel satellite selection strategy with a high success rate. The proposed strategies bring significant benefits of multi-GNSS signals to real-time high precision and high reliability positioning services.